Beginning Clinical Skills Practice

Lets get back to the real reason I started this website… I won’t be doing any more traveling for a while as I have just started my 3rd year of vet school! The first 2 weeks were an intensive block on the ‘Principles of Professional Practice.’ The mornings consist of lectures and then most afternoons we have very interesting practical classes:

In our fluids practical class we worked through some case studies. We had to decide if a patient needed intravenous (IV) fluids, how dehydrated they were, and what kind of fluids to give them. Then we had to calculate how fast we were going to give fluids to the animal. Another part of the class was practicing how to put IV catheters into canine forelimbs. The university provides us with fake ‘skin’ and realistic dog arms with ‘blood filled’ veins to practice on!

I really liked our first surgery class! Initially we looked at all the different types of surgical instruments you could use, and talked about how to properly hold them, clean them, and what kinds of surgery you might use them for. Then we had some time to practice a few different suturing patterns and knots on fake skin! The other half of the class we learned how to properly do a ‘surgical prep’ —> shaving the hair and washing the skin of a dog prior to abdominal surgery. We learned the basics of maintaining a sterile surgical field and how to properly drape a patient. Then I was volun-told to scrub in for surgery, put on a surgical gown, and close glove (this means I need to safely wash my hands/arms, put on my surgical clothing/gear without contaminating myself by touching anything).

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All of the things we got to take home to practice our clinical skills with–masks, surgical gown, cap, gloves, hand brush, catheters, suture, and surgical instruments.

Radiology (x-rays) practical class could have been very boring, but thanks to great professors it was engaging. The first half of the class we talked about different radiology equipment and machines that we might use in practice. We discussed how they worked and why we might want a certain set up. Then we went into the teaching hospital and exposed some x-rays of single bones. We also got to explore and play with the university’s rad viewing software.

The communications practical class was something I was both very excited to do and very nervous about. In this class we had to go into the teaching hospital and read the history on a case. Then we went into the waiting room and called our client and patient into our consult room. Our job was to establish a good first impression, understand the client, and get a sufficient history. We were to conduct the consult up until the point where we began a physical exam of the animal–we will practice that part later in the year. The case I got was about a dog with itchy ears and eyes. Once I called my client into the room I became a lot less nervous and my questions and conversation flowed more naturally.

Equine Clinical Examination: this class was a bit of a review from DVM1 I think. We had to work in groups and do a clinical exam on a horse–this includes looking at the horse from head to tail and assessing all the body systems for abnormalities. We also used our stethoscopes to listen to the different heart, lung, and gut sounds. Then we practiced intra-muscular (IM) and IV injections (into the jugular/neck vein) using saline.

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Listening to the heart of a horse after it finished competing. This picture was taken in my first year of vet school. I was assisting with vet checks at an eventing day. 

So even though we have well over 30 lectures to study within the first 14 days of class –I love vet school. Third year is going to be a good time, I can feel it!

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I can blog and study right?

I’m writing this blog post as a half procrastination-half studying tool because I really like theriogenology and reproductive technologies (and I may have a quiz tomorrow on this stuff…). They are relatively new and there is so much advancement and growth in that field! And so much more work to be done there as well…

Here are 3 of reproductive technologies that can be used for genetic improvement.

Artificial Insemination (AI) is a reproductive technology where semen is harvested from male animals and stored in semen straws that can then be deposited into chosen females. It is used to increase male selection and can therefore potentially increase the accuracy of the Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs). Semen can be sourced from all over the world and can potentially increase the effective population size (amount of genetically unrelated animals in a population). However, using a dairy bull from the USA may not be a great choice for an AUS dairy farmer as environmental interactions may pop up! AI is not used as often in the beef industry because it is more costly and labour intensive. AI is too expensive to do on commercial sheep farms as the procedure is different, it involves surgical insemination of the females. However, sheep stud farmers may use AI as they are selling the offspring for a lot more money (thus more cost effective). The benefits of using AI in your industry include:

  1. Increases the accuracy of EBVs and male selection
  2. Allows commercial breeders to access genetic information that previously would have been too expensive (and used only at a stud level)
  3. Allows great genetics to be rapidly spread throughout a population (because many semen straws can be made from one male)
  4. Technically forms a ‘world flock/herd’ of animals

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET) is used to increase female selection and can therefore potentially increase the accuracy of the EBVs. However, this is a very expensive procedure as it involves taking a superior female animal, using hormones to get her to produce more eggs and then harvesting the eggs. MOET allows the female genetics to be spread farther/faster into the population. MOET is best used in species who usually only produce one egg at a time like cows.

Inbreeding can be a big problem with MOET, so farmers need to develop a good breeding scheme/plan to avoid this. It is best to use females with good genetics and semen from males with good genetics (as opposed to fresh semen and females that harvest/flush well).

This leads to a concept which I find exciting (and ethically interesting!) which is called Juvenile In Vitro Embryo Transfer (JIVET). Since all females are born with the total number of eggs they need in life, these can technically be harvested at a very young age (juvenile). These harvested eggs can then be in vitro fertilized and develop into offspring. This reduces the generation inverval and increases selection intensity. There are current issues with this reproductive technology that have not been worked out yet—and so it is not common.

I apologize if some of the terms and concepts were a bit too confusing for some of my non-vet friends; however if you are interested in food or wool production this is a vital part of the industry. Feel free to pose any queries you might have and I’ll try  my best to answer 🙂

At work in my old University dairy barn

At work in my old University dairy barn

Settling in to school

While it was all fun and games in my last post about my animal handling practicums… this week was the first week of real vet school. I started lectures!

Some of the lectures this week focused on teeth and dentition. I haven’t had a lot of previous classes on this subject and therefore found it quite interesting. At home I work in small animal clinic where we do a lot of dental surgeries. Having the background knowledge about animal teeth will be super beneficial when I go back to work. I can’t say that I find dental consults, cases, and surgeries the most interesting part of veterinary medicine but they are quite common!

Other classes covered the skull and associated bones and muscles; we also spent time looking at microscope slides and identifying cells. My favorite parts of the week were when we got to practice some hands on skills with greyhounds and sheep and do a dissection of a dog leg.

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The biggest bonus I have discovered thus far is that Hills (a major pet food company) provides all the vet students with free tea and coffee in our building!! If nothing else, I picked the best school solely for this reason alone 🙂

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Studying in the vet student kitchen area

By this point I have discovered that most things in Australia are ridiculously expensive (except phone plans!). As an attempt to save money and be more active I’ve bought a bike and plan to bike everywhere instead of taking the tram/train/bus. Hopefully I can keep up with this into the Australian winter season (I hear it rains a lot)… I’ll get back to you on that.

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Here I am (squinting in the sun) with my new bike on the driveway up to the vet building.

Cheers!